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Saturday, 12 November 2011

Trivandrum rare pictures (1850-1950)

Found some rare photographs taken by Zacharias D'Cruz, the Government photographer,  All these photographs are part of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' from the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. Here are some of those pictures:

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Public Gardens in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' from the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The idea of establishing a Public Garden in Trivandrum was sanctioned by the Maharaja in 1859 and was to be accomplished under the direction of John Allan Broun, the Government Astronomer. Several interesting botanical specimens were reared in the garden from seeds and cuttings procured from Bangalore and other cities. In 1879, the Curatorship was abolished and the management of the museum and the gardens was placed under a Committee consisting of the British Resident and three European members. In 1897-98, the institutions were placed under an officer called "Director of the Government Museum and Public Gardens". An artificial lake was constructed in the gardens in the late 19th century.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the Adoption Durbar, Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The State troops at the Adoption Durbar can be seen here on parade during the ceremony.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a general view of the Christ Church and cemetry in Trivandrum in the erstwhile Travancore State. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The Church, belonged to the London Missionary Society and is situated in the Cantonment area called Palayam.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the General Hospital in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. This hospital was opened on 9th November 1865 by the Maharaja in person.

This photograph of the Veli lake was taken by Zachariah D' Cruz in about 1900 and is from the Curzon Collection 'Album of South Indian views'. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The picture is taken from a neighbouring hillside over-looking the lake, with paddy fields on the water's edge in the foreground. The spelling is given as Velli Lake on the map accompanying E G Hatch's 'Travancore: A guide book for the visitor' (1933).
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Kanakakunnu Palace, Trivandrum in the erstwhile Travancore State. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the Public Offices in Trivandrum, in the erstwhile Travancore . It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection.George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. 'The Cantonment [Palayam], the Public Offices, the residence of the upper classes, European as well as native, are all beautifully located on small eminences, commanding beautiful scenery all round'.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Varkala beach with the cliffs, in the erstwhile Travancore. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. Varkala near Trivandrum is known for the temple of great antiquity dedicated to Janrdanaswami and for its mineral waters. Springs gush out of the cliffs that rise abruptly on the beach. There are two tunnels close to the temple constructed at a great cost by the Travancore Government. One of them is nearly half a mile in length, bored through the cliffs linking the waterways on either side and establishing through-water communication between Trivandrum and Quilon.
Photograph of the gopura of the Padmanabha Temple at Trivandrum, taken by Zachariah D'Cruz in the 1890s from the 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. This ancient Hindu temple is one of the greatest of Kerala and was patronised mainly in the 18th century by the Travancore kings. The sanctuary, which enshrines a large image of Vishnu, is built in the typical Kerala style while the surrounding walls and towers are similar to those of the Dravidian architecture of Tamil Nadu. The imposing gopura or entrance gateway consists of ascending storeys ending with a vaulted roof and reflect the contemporary Nayaka style of architecture.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Varkala Tunnel, in the erstwhile Travancore. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. Varkala near Trivandrum is known for the temple of great antiquity dedicated to Janrdanaswami and for its mineral waters. Springs gush out of the cliffs that rise abruptly on the beach. There are two tunnels close to the temple constructed at a great cost by the Travancore Government and opened in 1881. One of them is nearly half a mile in length, bored through the cliffs linking the waterways on either side and establishing through-water communication between Trivandrum and Quilon.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Industrial School of Arts, Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection'. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. A 'School of Arts' was established by the Travancore Government in Trivandrum in 1862-63. In 1872-73, a small establishment of carving in ivory under the direction of a Brahmin. In 1890, the School was named an 'Industrial School' and secured the services of two potters from the Madras School of Arts. A separate building was provided for the School. Later painting and photography was added to the Arts branch and a smithy to the Industrial branch. A weaving class was added in 1901-02.
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the British Residency, Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. It shows a general view of the two-storey building from the garden, with porte-cochère in the foreground.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of what is now called the University College at Trivandrum, during Lord Curzon's visit to the Travancore State. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The building was completed and occupied in 1873 with John Ross of the Edinburgh University as Principal. When the B. A. classes were opened there was provision to texch only one Optional Branch, viz., Philosophy. Another branch , Mathematics and Natural Philosophy was added in 1879. A chair of advanced chemistry was established in 1884, and another for History in 1900.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Golf Links, Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' from the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Palace at Ponmudi, in the erstwhile Travancore . It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Public Gardens in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The idea of establishing a Public Garden in Trivandrum was sanctioned by the Maharaja in 1859 and was to be accomplished under the direction of John Allan Broun, the Government Astronomer.Several interesting botanical specimens were reared in the garden from seeds and cuttings procured from Bangalore and other cities. In 1879, the Curatorship was abolished and the management of the museum and the gardens was placed under a Committee consisting of the British Resident and three European members. In 1897-98, the institutions were placed under an officer called "Director of the Government Museum and Public Gardens". An artificial lake was constructed in the gardens in the late 19th century.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the Chief Engineer's Office, Trivandrum in the erstwhile Travancore State. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' part of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Golf Links, Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' from the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Chathan Kovil in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The Chathan is the chief malevolent deity, 'a low-caste demon who delights in mischief-making, such as pelting stones, breaking pots in houses, throwing dirt inside rooms or on victuals, tearing off or burning valuable clothes, setting fire to houses, untying and letting loose cattle from the stalls, causing vessels to knock against one another and breaking them, producing hideous noises and committing a number of similar nuisances. It is only low-caste people who seek the aid of this and other evil spirits'.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the Dewan's official residence. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The Dewan is the Prime Minister of the Princely State.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a distant view of the Central Jail in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' part of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The Central Jail at Trivandrum was situated at the north-western angle of the Fort. This building before the occupation of the jail served as the barracks for the Nayar Brigade, in which prisoners serving short-terms were confined. The prisoners were locked up at night and guarded by Jail warders and brigade sepoys. A large number of them were employed in the making and repairing of roads both at Trivandrum and at Quilon, while others were told off in small parties from day to day for garden work in the Palaces, Hospitals, Sirkar buildings and Public Gardens. To the Jail there was attached a hospital located in a separate building where the prisoner taken ill was removed.

Photograph of the Palace, Trivandrum taken by an unknown photographer in the 1900s. The photograph is from an album containing views of various locations in India, formerly in the collection of Horatio Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener of Khartoum and Broome, (1850-1916), who was Commander in Chief of India between 1902 and 1909.
Thiruvananthapuram, also known as Trivandrum is a large city situated on a series of low densely forested hills in the south of India on the edge of the Arabian Sea. From 1750 until 1956 the city was the capital of the kingdom of Travancore until the state of Kerala was created. The name is derived from thiru-anantha-puram or ‘the holy city of Anatha’ which is the coiled snake on which the god Vishnu reclines. The Palace is now used as government offices.
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a general view of the canal at Chakay, Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.

Photograph, taken about 1900 by the Government photographer Zacharias D'Cruz, of the Tirvattar temple in the erstwhile Travancore State. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' from the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The Adikesava Perumal temple pictured here is considered to be of equal sanctity to that at Trivandrum dedicated to Sri Padmanabha, though it is much older. The God Adikesava is said to have taken his rest at Tiruvattar after having killed an Asura, who had been the cause of immense misery to the world. He is represented as Vishnu seated, in contrast to the lying posture of Sri Padmanabha at Trivandrum. The temple is one of the largest in Travancore and with its large corridors adorned with rows of stone-pillars and excellent sculptures it forms a magnificent piece of ancient Dravidian architecture. It is situated on a high level and flights of steps lead up to its precincts from all sides.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Varkala Canal, in the erstwhile Travancore during Lord Curzon's visit to the State. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views'. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. Varkala near Trivandrum is known for the temple of great antiquity dedicated to Janrdanaswami and for its mineral waters. Springs gush out of the cliffs that rise abruptly on the beach. There are two tunnels close to the temple constructed at a great cost by the Travancore Government and opened in 1881. One of them is nearly half a mile in length, bored through the cliffs linking the waterways on either side and establishing through-water communication between Trivandrum and Quilon.
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Public Gardens in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The idea of establishing a Public Garden in Trivandrum was sanctioned by the Maharaja in 1859 and was to be accomplished under the direction of John Allan Broun, the Government Astronomer.Several interesting botanical specimens were reared in the garden from seeds and cuttings procured from Bangalore and other cities. In 1879, the Curatorship was abolished and the management of the museum and the gardens was placed under a Committee consisting of the British Resident and three European members. In 1897-98, the institutions were placed under an officer called "Director of the Government Museum and Public Gardens". An artificial lake was constructed in the gardens in the late 19th century.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Varkala Canal, in the erstwhile Travancore. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. Varkala near Trivandrum is known for the temple of great antiquity dedicated to Janrdanaswami and for its mineral waters. Springs gush out of the cliffs that rise abruptly on the beach. There are two tunnels close to the temple constructed at a great cost by the Travancore Government. One of them is nearly half a mile in length, bored through the cliffs linking the waterways on either side and establishing through-water communication between Trivandrum and Quilon.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the interior of the Christ Church and cemetry, Trivandrum in the erstwhile Travancore. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' part of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.
 
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Band-Stand in the Public Gardens in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. The idea of establishing a Public Garden in Trivandrum was sanctioned by the Maharaja in 1859 and was to be accomplished under the direction of John Allan Broun, the Government Astronomer.Several interesting botanical specimens were reared in the garden from seeds and cuttings procured from Bangalore and other cities. In 1879, the Curatorship was abolished and the management of the museum and the gardens was placed under a Committee consisting of the British Resident and three European members. In 1897-98, the institutions were placed under an officer called "Director of the Government Museum and Public Gardens". An artificial lake was constructed in the gardens in the late 19th century.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the Museum, Trivandrum in the erstwhile Travancore State. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.Side view of R.F. Chisholm''s Napier Museum, showing use of polychrome brick, with pitched roof and dormers in local style. This is an adaptation of Chisholm''s original design of 1872, which includes tall twin towers not seen here. The idea of establishing a museum was first mooted by the British Resident William Cullen in the late 1840s. It was realized under the able supervision of the Government Astronomer John Allan Broun in 1852. The museum in its early days until 1873 was housed in the Government residence occupied by Broun and later moved to a new building designed by Chisholm. It was occupied in 1880. Attached to the Museum is a Public Library started in 1836.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Kaudiar Palace, Trivandrum of the Travancore Royal family. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. This view ahows the main range from the driveway. This photograph is reproduced in V. Nagam Aiya''s ''The Travancore State Manual'' (3 vols, Trivandrum, 1906).

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Travancore Maharaja's State Carriage in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. It was drawn by a team of six horses. In the background can be seen the gopuram of the Padmanabha Swamy temple.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the Leper Asylum buildings, Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.This institution was opened in 1896-97 and the lepers were hitherto accommodated in the Charity Hospital, Thycaud were transferred here. The hospital was managed 'on the most up-to-date model', every attention being given to the food, clothing, exercise and general personal hygiene of the inmates. They were encouraged to keep themselves occupied with some kind of creative work. Amusements were also provided in the form of reading, singing, football and playing cards.
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a general view of golf links. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905. View looking towards golf pavilion, with landscaped terraces and fountain in foreground. The pavilion has a roof designed in local style.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Victorai Jubilee Town Hall in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.
Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of the Public Gardens in Trivandrum. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. George Nathaniel Curzon was Under Secretary of State at the Foreign Office between 1895-98 and Viceroy of India between 1898-1905.The idea of establishing a Public Garden in Trivandrum was sanctioned by the Maharaja in 1859 and was to be accomplished under the direction of John Allan Broun, the Government Astronomer. Several interesting botanical specimens were reared in the garden from seeds and cuttings procured from Bangalore and other cities. In 1879, the Curatorship was abolished and the management of the museum and the gardens was placed under a Committee consisting of the British Resident and three European members. In 1897-98, the institutions were placed under an officer called "Director of the Government Museum and Public Gardens". An artificial lake was constructed in the gardens in the late 19th century.

Photograph taken about 1900 by the Government photographer, Zacharias D'Cruz of a view of the Normal School, Trivandrum in the erstwhile Travancore State. It is one of 76 prints in an album entitled 'Album of South Indian Views' of the Curzon Collection. The school was two storeyed with pitched roof and projecting dormers of carved wood in local style. When the Government of Travancore first established English schools it obtained teachers from outside. In 1894 a Normal School Institution was established in Trivandrum in the name of English Normal School. It consisted of three classes in which those who had passed the Lowers Secondary, Matriculation and F. A. Examinations were trained. The Government sanctioned two Normal Schools during 1883-84, one at Trivandrum and the other at Kottar for the training of teachers for Vernacular schools. The services of a duly qualified and trained teacher from Madras were secured to start the Normal School at Trivandrum. The School at Kottar was abolished in 1894, and the one at the Capital was amalgamated in 1900 with the English Normal School established in 1894.

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